A Brief History of Digital Printing

In comparison to printing in general, the history of digital is comparatively shorter. It was back in 1439, when German businessman Johannes Gutenberg created a printing press that started the mass production of books. But it was early 1990’s when the very first digital full color printing presses hit the market. In 1993, digital printing was first introduced and the history of the printing industry will never be the same again. The digital printer was the first mainstream printer that would produce cost effective short run printing.

In the year 1993 the very first digital color printing press was inaugurated. It was named Indigo. In no time, it brought a big transformation in the world of press and printing. People were able to select customized high quality prints right from the desktop. or even more surprisingly anywhere in the world if your printer is connected to a network.

This name Indigo derives from a company that was formed by Benny Landa in the year 1977 with a view to develop the quickest photocopier in the world. Later on, Benny Landa discovered the fact that the ink used in the photocopier, also known as ElectroInk, can also be used in the printers. ElectroInk makes use of mini color particles poised inside imaging oil known as Isopar which can be either attracted or repelled. On a paper surface, this ink creates a thin & smooth plastic coating.

After the launch of Indigo, the printing market went on to grow on a steady pace & in the year 2010 market for the digital printing was valued to be worth $ 85.2bn. In 2000 HP made a $ 100m investment in Indigo, buying 14.8 million of Indigo’s common shares. On September 6, 2001 HP announced that it will acquire the remaining outstanding shares of Indigo

The principal difference between conventional printing methods and digital printing methods like lithography is the fact that in digital printing does not use conventional printing plates. As a result, the printing process becomes quicker, cleaner and lot less expensive. Of the available digital printing methods, laser printing and inkjet printing are the most commonly used ones.

In order to work with digital printing, first of all one need to put the digital image into a computer. The image must be transferrable to different surfaces such as paper stock, vinyl etc. Digital printing makes use of dry ink printers like as the thermal printers.

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The Health Benefits of the Virgin Bloody Mary Drink

Cocktails are a lot of fun no matter what the environment. There are some people who simply do not want to drink cocktails because they do not enjoy the negative health effects which they face by drinking too much alcohol. This causes people to avoid cocktails altogether, but there are many cocktails which can be made in a non alcoholic version which will have great health benefits for you. One of the best recipes you can have without alcohol is the virgin Bloody Mary drink. So, put away the punch and the wine. Put the beer back in the fridge and get ready to try a recipe for a healthier cocktail everyone can enjoy.

Why the Bloody Mary is Healthy

The main ingredient in a Bloody Mary is the main reason why the drink is so healthy to begin with. The tomato juice which is used for the cocktail includes many different vitamins in a concentrated dosage. One of the most abundant vitamins is Lycopene. This is a water soluble vitamin which is very good for your heart. It helps in removing clogs which are caused by plaque in your arteries as well as other heart maladies.

You will also find a lot of vitamin C in tomato juice. Many people are unaware of how much vitamin C you can get from a tomato. Since Tomato juice contains all of the water from the tomato, you are getting every ounce of vitamin C the tomato has to offer. What better way to enjoy it than with the spicy concoction that is the Bloody Mary drink. You will even find you will consume less sugar and sodium than you will if you were to drink a soft drink of the same volume.

How to Increase the Health Benefits

While the standard Bloody Mary is already pretty healthy, you will enjoy even more benefits when you pair it with a stalk of celery or even add celery puree to your mixture. Adding garlic and onions is another great heart healthy way to drink yourself into a healthier future. Even the addition of the spice is a great way to increase metabolism and awaken the senses. You can find this in horseradish or in hot sauce. Both of these are common ingredients. Use fresh lime juice in the cocktail and the health benefits will go through the roof.

Some may try to tell about how wines have been proven to help reduce fat and increase heart functions. While there might be some truth to this, drinking any alcohol is simply not for everyone. This does not mean you have to miss out on all of the health benefits which are available to you through a properly prepared beverage. You can enjoy a Bloody Mary drink and your body will thank you for it. The best part is, this is a cocktail you can share with the entire family even if they like to drink alcohol. No one will miss the vodka if you have a good recipe to share.

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Health – Entering a Hospital

A hospital is driven by the goal of saving lives. It may range in size and service from a small unit that provides general care and low-risk treatments to large, specialized centers offering dramatic and experimental therapies. You may be limited in your choice of a hospital by factors beyond your control, including insurance coverage, your physician’s hospital affiliation, and type of care available.

Before entering a hospital, you should be aware of possible dangers. Well-known hospital hazards are unnecessary operations, unexpected drug reactions, harmful or even fatal blunders, and hospital borne infections. The Institute of Medicine recently identified three areas in which the health-care system, in general, and hospitals and their staff, in specific, often fall short: the use of unnecessary or inappropriate care (too many antibiotics), underused of effective care ( too few immunizations or Pap smears), and shortcomings in technical and interpersonal skills. The greatest single danger that a hospital presents is infection, which is largely preventable.

What can lay people do to ensure proper and safe care while in the hospital? The following guidelines should be considered.

If you have a choice of hospitals, inquire about their accreditation status. Hospitals are subject to inspection to make sure they are in compliance with federal standards. Policies implemented in 1989 require the release of information on request to state health departments regarding a hospital’s mortality rate, its accreditation status, and its major deficiencies.

Before checking into a hospital, you need to decide on your accommodations. Do you want to pay extra for a single room? Do you want a nonsmoker for a roommate? Do you need a special diet? Do you need a place to store refrigerated medicine? If someone will be staying with you, will they need a cot? You should try to avoid going in on a weekend when few procedures are done. When you get to your room, you should speak up immediately if it’s unacceptable.

You need to be familiar with your rights as a patient. Hospitals should provide an information booklet that includes a Patient’s Bill of Rights. The booklet will inform you that you have the right to considerate and respectful care; information about tests, drugs, and procedures; dignity; courtesy; respect; and the opportunity to make decisions, including when to leave the hospital.

You should make informed decisions. Before authorizing any procedure, patients must be informed about their medical condition, treatment options, expected risks, prognosis of the condition, and the name of the person in charge of treatment. This is called informed consent. The only times hospitals are not required to obtain informed consent are cases involving life-threatening emergencies, unconscious patients when no relatives are present, and / or compliance with the law or a court order, such as examination of sexually transmitted diseases. If you are asked to sign a consent form, you should read it first. If you want more information, you should ask before signing. If you are skeptical, you have the right to post pone the procedure and discuss it with your doctor.

Authorization of a medical procedure may be given nonverbally, such as an appearance at a doctor’s office for treatment, cooperation during the administration of tests, or failure to object when consent can be easily refused. This is called implied consent.

You need to weigh the risks of drug therapy, x-ray examinations, and laboratory tests with their expected benefits. When tests or treatments are ordered, you should ask about their purpose, possible risks, and possible actions if a test finds something wrong. For example, the injection or ingestion of x-ray dyes makes body structures more visible and greatly facilitates a physician’s ability to make a correct diagnosis. However, dyes can cause an allergic reaction that ranges from a skin rash to circulatory collapse and death. Finally, you should inquire about prescribed drugs. You should avoid taking drugs, including pain and sleeping medication, unless you feel confident of their benefits and are aware of their hazards.

When scheduled for surgery, prepare for anesthesia. In rare cases general anesthesia can cause brain damage and death. One cause of such catastrophes is vomiting while unconscious. To reduce the risk, refuse any food or drink that may be offered by mistake in the 8 hours before surgery.

You need to know who is in charge of your care and record the office number and when you can expect a visit. If your doctor is transferring your care to someone else, you need to know who it is. If your doctor is not available and you do not know what is happening, you can ask for the nurse in charge of your case.

You should keep a daily log of procedures, medicines, and doctor visits. When you get your bill, compare each item with your written record. Insist on an itemized bill.

You should stay active within the limits of your medical problem. Many body functions begin to suffer from just a few days’ inactivity. Moving about, walking, bending, and contracting muscles help to clear body fluids, reduce the risk of infections (especially in the lungs), and cope with the stress of hospital procedures that add to the depression and malaise of hospitalization.

You should be alert. Throughout your stay, you can keep asking questions until you know all you need to know. According to some experts, the biggest improvement in health care has not been technological advances; it’s been patients asking questions. The more questions, the fewer mistakes and the more power patients have in the doctor-patient relationship

Selecting a Health-Care Professional

Choosing a physician for your general health care is an important and necessary duty. Only physicians are discussed here, but this information applies to the selection of all health-care practitioners. You must select one who will listen carefully to your problems and diagnose them accurately. At the same time, you need a physician who can move you through the modern medical maze of technology and specialists.

For most people, good health care means having a primary-care physician, a professional who assists you as you undertake responsibility for your overall health and directs you when specialized care is necessary. Your primary-care physician should be familiar with your complete medical history, as well as your home, work, and other environments. You are better understood in periods of sickness when your physician also sees you during periods of wellness. Finding a primary-care physician, however, may be difficult. Of the 700,000 doctors in the United States, only 200,000 (less than 30%) are in primary care.

For adults, primary-care physicians are usually family practitioners, once called “general practitioners,” and internists, specialists in internal medicine. Pediatricians often serve as primary-care physicians for children. Obstetricians and gynecologists, who specialize in pregnancy, childbirth, and diseases of the female reproductive system, often serve as primary-care physicians to women. In some places, general surgeons may offer primary care in addition to the surgery they perform. Some osteopathic physicians also practice family medicine. A doctor of osteopathy (DO) emphasizes manipulation of the body to treat symptoms.

There are several sources of information for obtaining the names of physicians in your area:

Local and state medical societies can identify doctors by specialty and tell you a doctor’s basic credentials. You should check on the doctor’s hospital affiliation and make sure the hospital is accredited. Another sign of standing is the type of societies in which the doctor has membership. The qualifications of a surgeon, for example, are enhanced by a fellowship in the American College of Surgeons (abbreviated as FACS after the surgeon’s name). An internist fellowship in the American College of Physicians is abbreviated F ACP. Membership in academies indicates a physician’s special interest.

All physicians board certified in the United States are listed in the American Medical Directory published by the American Medical Association and available in larger libraries. About one fourth of the practicing physicians in the United States are not board certified. This may mean that a doctor failed the exam, never completed training, or is incompetent. It could also mean that the doctor simply has not taken the exam.

The American Board of Medical Specialists (ABMS) publishes the Compendium of Certified Medical Specialties, which lists physicians by name, specialty, and location. Pharmacists can be asked to recommend names.

Hospitals can give you names of staff physicians who also practice in the community.

Local medical schools can identify faculty members who also practice privately.

Many colleges and universities have health centers that keep a list of physicians for student referral.

Friends may have recommendations, but you should allow for the possibility that your opinion of the doctor may be different.

Once you have identified a leading candidate, you can make an appointment. You need to check with the office staff about office hours, availability of emergency care at night or on weekends, backup doctors, procedures when you call for advice, hospital affiliation, and payment and insurance procedure.You should schedule your first visit while in good health. Once you have seen your doctor, reflect on the following: Did the doctor seem to be listening to you? Were your questions answered? Was a medical history taken? Were you informed of possible side effects of drugs or tests? Was respect shown for your need of privacy? Was the doctor open to the suggestion of a second opinion?

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Understanding The Health Insurance Claims Process

It is very important to make sure that you have adequate health insurance but you also need to make sure that you know how to make a claim when the need arises. The health insurance claims process is fairly straightforward but you need to make sure that you have all of the information that the company will need so that your claim is processed as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Many people assume that the hospital and insurance company will do it all for you. Unfortunately, if you do this and do not make sure that it is being processed correctly then it might be that they will process you claim in a way that suits them and that you will not get all of the benefits that you are rightly entitled to.

A lot of health insurance policies will have coverage for a lot of conditions that are pre-approved, so it is important to read your policy carefully to see if the condition that you need to make a claim for is actually pre-approved as this will save you a lot of needless work. If you are not sure, then it is a good idea to call the insurance company providing your coverage and ask them as they would rather spend a few minutes helping you on the phone than having to work through a lot of pointless paperwork that you have given then for a condition that is actually pre-approved for treatment.

You also need to make sure you have read the schedule that tells you what benefits are attached to your insurance so that you know what you are entitled to. Additionally, you also need to read the exclusions and the limits for your insurance. There will be a separate part that tells you how to submit your request as each company has it's own way of processing claims. If your insurance is an indemnity plan then the company will only process the claim after you have had the treatment, but you should always get an explanation of benefits whenever any part of a claim is processed no matter what insurance plan you have, this way you will know exactly what they have allowed or disallowed and why.

When you make an insurance claim it is important to make sure that you are fully aware of what that hospital and insurance company are doing so that you can make sure that they are giving you everything that you are entitled to that way if there is anything that needs sorting out you can give them the information to do it as soon as possible.

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What Is Was Like to Go to Yeoman "A" School in the Untied States Navy in Mississippi

What is was like to go to Yeoman "A" School Training.

I arrived at Meridian, Mississippi, for Yeoman "A" School Training, they called it. It was supposed to be a couple of months long school, where they teach you all the proper ways, to type up Navy correspondence, and other paper work.

I arrived in the middle of the night to my new duty station. The way the dorm rooms were set up, there were 3 guys to a room, and 4 rooms per common area, with sitting tables, TV, and stuff like that, that was like our living room. I remember a really big fat guy, yelling at the top of his lungs, "fresh meat", he was yelling. Luckily for me, that jerk was just on his way out, and I did not have to put up for him very long at all.

I remember, going the first day, down to school. First, you had to fall in line with everyone else. The whole school marched from the barracks, down to the school, in a military order. Down at the school, they were going to teach us how to type, to start off with. I had had, a typing class in high school, but I never actually learned to type one word on the typewriter. The teacher was nice to me, and gave me a D-, just so I could pass the class. But this was the Navy, and I'm sure they expected me to learn how to type. There was no way around learning to type, it had to be done. I learned to type the right way, and at a certain speed, in about 2 weeks.

The way the Navy teaches you to type, is they show you a movie in the dark, and hide your key board from your eyes. They turn the lights off, and they show you these Navy movies, that are about two weeks long. Each couple of hour movie shows you how to type different words, and before you know it, the movie is done, and you know how to type in your sleep. You do so much repetitive typing, that you end up doing it in your sleep, it seems, and you have to be able to type a certain amount of words, per minute, in order to graduate from the class, and move on to your next duty station.

Besides the day to day learning at school, about doing paper work the right way, and stuff like that. Yeoman school was pretty much just like any other school, you would learn stuff at. Except here, you wore a uniform, and had to get into formation each morning, and listen to things being told to you.

You could pretty much do what you wanted, after school each day. You were allowed to do what you wanted pretty much, but you were not allowed to leave the base, and go into town. I was in Meridian for about two months, but I did not have much chance, to see a lot of different parts of the town, only a few times, when they let us out on liberty call.

At school, most people are coming and going, getting ready to ship out, to new duty stations. People were getting assigned orders to all kinds of exotic sounding in places. They have a thing in the Navy, that they call the "dream sheet", where you pick three places you would like your next new duty station to be. The Navy says they will try to get you one of your dream duty stations, or as close to one of them, as they can.

I picked Australia, the Philippines, and Hawaii. The Navy ended up giving me orders to a ship that was stationed in Guam. I had never heard of Guam before. I had to go look it up on the map. It was about right in the middle of all three of my duty station selections, but just not one of them. But going to my new ship, would still come later. I still had to finish yeoman school, and graduate from it first. Some people could never get the hang of typing, at a certain speed. They ended up having to drop the school, and pick another job to train for.

School was still a fresh place for most people. We had just finished boot camp, and was learning to have more freedom given to us, and a lot less yelling going on, like boot camp had. Some of the characters, in the units we were berthed in, were just plain crazy.

The building Unit we were all living in, was three stories tall, and had various people living in it. Some of the people that were living in our unit, were waiting to be discharged from the Navy, for various reasons. In one of rooms that was directly below us, was some flamboyant gays living. They were so outrageously gay, and flamboyant about it, like Liberace. A black and a white guy.

The Navy was discharging them both, for being openly gay. They were about the gayest guys I had ever seen, and I think they might of been the first ones I've ever seen, in real life, besides on TV. I was from a small town, they could of actually been doing the best darn act, to get out of the Navy, but I don't think so, no guy would go threw that.

On one of the days, that I was assigned my first watch, it was to be with a partner. We would be a roving patrol for the school grounds for four hours. When I showed up for my watch, I was partnered up with a girl, that was going to be a yeoman also.

As we walked around for our 4 hours on watch time, we did the usual stuff. Just walking around, and making sure nothing was wrong. My new partner I had just met, was asking me, what kinds of drugs I liked to do. I told her my experiences that I had with drugs, and it was limited, and then she told me hers. I had never heard of some of the drugs she was talking about, back then anyway. Now a days, the stuff she said is everywhere, but she was from the city, and said she loved it, and did it all the time, and I did not even know what she was talking about. That was really the first girl I had ever talked to, who wore a uniform just like mine, and I wondered what kind of girls join the Navy?

While I was still stationed at yeoman training school, we got another paycheck. All of a sudden, I had a lot of extra money, and I did not owe anybody any of it. I was looking at a bulletin board somewhere, and I noticed this motorcycle for sale, for $ 500. It was one of the staff members who was stationed on the base, and also lived on the base, but just worked somewhere else.

Students were not allowed to leave the base, unless they were on liberty. I bought and paid for the motorcycle, with almost all the money, from the paycheck I had just received. The guy I bought the bike from, also gave me a lot of extra parts, like an extra gas tank, gas can, oil, those sorts of things, you get with a bike when you buy it sometimes. I parked the motorcycle in the parking lot of the barracks. I was going to keep the motorcycle, just for me to ride around with, on base, just while I was at school, and then get rid of it. I put all the extra parts, gasoline, oil, etc … in my storage locker that stands up like a small stand up closet, that you are supposed to keep your dress uniforms in.

One day, the staff said, they were going to have a surprise inspection, to see how things were going. We never had any inspections before at the school, so this was new to me again.

When they come in to inspect, they call "attention on deck", and you are supposed to stop what you are doing, and stand at attention, until someone yells, "carry on". They had us all line up in front of our lockers, at attention, and they were opening up each locker, and seeing how the guys clothes were put away, and then they came to mine.

When they got to my clothes locker to inspect, and I opened it up for them, they first saw all these gas cans, oil cans, motorcycle parts and more, they did not know what to think. They had to call in special people, to see about the fire hazard. I was told to get everything out of my locker, and I was told I was not allowed to own a motorcycle on base. I ended up getting rid of it to another staff member for $ 50, that knew I was in a bind.

I did get to ride it around the base, and it was missing the muffler, and it was loud, it was a Harley, but you could hear me coming. When other guys were in the common area, just sitting around, watching TV, I had been out after school, riding around on my motorcycle, checking out the base, on my motorcycle I was not supposed to have.

At the end of the school graduation, they let the students go out into town. Before you are allowed to go out into town, on liberty call, you are told what to expect, and what to do, and not to do, to stay out of trouble. They said that the town people, do not really like the Navy people, so be careful while you are in town, to avoid any fights.

We all went to one of the most common name brand bars in town, where it was pretty much all guys and girls from the base, not to many locals hanging out. It was going to turn into a giant meat market. Everyone could finally shack up with anyone they wanted to from school, that you could not do in school, or at the barracks. Any male, or female, caught in each othe's rooms at school, was called fraternization, and was very serious, and could get you kicked out of the Navy. Out in town, everybody ended up with someone, and everyone rented rooms for the night.

School was over, and it was time to join the "regular navy" as they called it, and the regular Navy, meant ships and sea, and going to other countries.

I took my first leave of absence from the Navy, before going to, and reporting for duty, to my first ship. I wore my dress uniform, as I was required to do, and I rode a grayhound bus, from Meridian, Mississippi, to Detroit, Michigan. It was one of the longest rides, I had ever taken on a bus. It must of stopped at every chicken farm ranch, along the way. When I finally got back to Michigan, I was dead beat tired from the bus. I stayed home at my sister's house for about 10 days.

It was time to go to my first "real" duty station. My first real duty station, was a submarine tender, named the USS PROTEUS (AS-19) that had a little more than 1,300 people on it. 6 of the crew member were ladies, all officer ladies. Half of them would be working in my department.

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Designer Cases for Moto G4 Play

Lenovo has just released the fourth generation of what is arguably the most popular midrange smartphone in the Android marketplace. Building on the success of the previous versions, Lenovo has tried to give users a little more choice than they have had before when it comes to buying Moto G. This year, with the Moto G4, there are actually 3 different versions of the phone with the plain vanilla Moto G4 as the mid-tier model, a Moto G4 Plus that packs some very nice hardware upgrades into the same body and the slightly low end Moto G4 Play. One reason that owners looking to upgrade from a previous generation Moto G4, may want to go for the new G4 Play is that while the other two models in the fourth generation lineup have increased in size to pack in a larger 5.5 "display, the Play version stays with the same 5 "display that its predecessors have had for the last two generations. What this means is that while the new Moto G4 and G4 Plus are identical on the outside and can share cases, designer cases for the Moto G4 Play cannot be shared with any of its brethren.

The best value for money: Moto G4

For people who do not want the latest and greatest in hardware specs and who are just looking for a very capable midrange device with no major flaws or shortcomings at a great price, the Play is a great value. You can buy the phone and get a couple of designer cases for Moto G4 Play and still save some money over the standard Moto G4 and even more over the Moto G4 Plus. What then, will Play owners be giving up by going with the economy version of the G4? Firstly, the Play has a slower Qualcomm Snapdragon processor, the 410 model. It is still quad core though and should have more than enough muscle for everything but the most cutting edge games. The display is still a 720p screen rather than a Full HD 1080p version. This isn't too much of a sacrifice however because at 5 "the screen still works out to a ppi that almost touches 300.

Save on the phone, spend on personalization.

Young consumers who don't need the most high end performance from their phones but who want to customize them to their hearts content would do well to pick up a perfectly capable phone at a great price, such as the G4 Play and then spend the money they saved on accessories like cases and covers for the phone. If the previous generations of the Moto G are anything to go by, the market should soon be flooded with designer cases for the Moto G4 Play as well as its more expensive siblings, the standard G4 and the G4 Plus. While Lenovo plans to offer the Moto Maker customization service for the Moto G4 for the first time in the model's history, whether this option is available with the G4 Play remains to be seen.

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Rewards in the Classroom: Pros and Cons of Tangible Rewards

Are rewards in the classroom an effective teaching tool or do their negative consequences outweigh any benefits? This is a hotly-debated issue in educational circles and the debate is unlikely to end anytime soon. Why do teachers use tangible rewards? Because they work, at least for the short-term.

This article will look at the pros and cons of using tangible rewards (candy, food coupons, trinkets) to manipulate student behavior.


  • These items can quickly change student behavior. Start giving candy to kids are answering a question and your participation rates will skyrocket.
  • This is an easy system for students to understand. Do what the teacher wants, get a prize.
  • Reinforcement is frequent and immediate. Students don't have to wait to receive it.
  • Rewards provide a short-term incentive to behave or work hard.
  • Rewards can encourage involvement from students who normally are unengaged.
  • Students can gradually be weaned off of tangible rewards by using intermittent reinforcement.


  • Rewards cause students to work for the wrong reasons.
  • They only create a temporary change.
  • Rather than rewards, they often are actually a bribe.
  • Since the teacher usually pays for her own rewards, it can become expensive.
  • Not all students are motivated by the reward you offer.
  • They can actually be a disincentive. If the reward is given to the first person with the correct answer, many students may not even try.
  • Food prizes are risky and should be avoided. Your class may contain diabetics and students with many types of allergies.
  • If you stop giving the rewards the desired behaviors may cease because they are tied to the reward.
  • Rewards encourage an external focus. Students learn because they will get something physical for it. The teaching goal is to move students to the level of working for internal rewards, such as the feeling of pride attained from doing a good job. Tangibles don't promote this.

I used tangible rewards on occasion and don't see anything wrong with that. Sometimes I would pick a random name from homework papers and give a little prize. It did tend to increase the percentage of homework assignments for awhile. And sometimes I gave bonus points to groups who won review contests. To me this just adds a fun element to the class. As long as it's not expected by the kids, it's just another tool.

Trying to implement a reward system on a class wide level however, is time-intensive, expensive and ultimately – not very effective. It also has a negative effect on student participation and cooperation in class. Soon whenever you ask students to do something you will get a chorus of "What do we get?" This will get old really quick!

The best approach is not to rely on physical rewards. However, if you are already implementing a reward-based behavior system, begin slowly weaning the kids away from it. Instead of getting something for everything, give rewards at the end of the week. As you do this increase the amount of verbal praise and encourage them to feel proud of their accomplishments. Hopefully, they will soon stop expecting tangible rewards.

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How to Make College Students More Courageous

As educators, we know one of the best traits that can aid in success is confidence. Self-doubt can kill dreams and a lack of belief in oneself can deter anyone from achieving a goal and becoming successful. However, confidence is often something that we have or need at any given time. We need confidence, even for the smaller day to day routine things that we do. On the other hand, sometimes, we need courage to get through a situation. Courage is pushing through when things are tough or create fear. For example, it might take confidence to ace the final exam, but it takes courage to stick out a degree program when it puts finances in jeopardy, reduces work-life balance, and all your support systems are against you going for this goal.

As educators, we will see many students each year that need to build up their courage. They need our help and guidance on how to be courageous in a time of fearfulness or anxieties. Students face many life events along their four plus years with us, and to help them achieve their goal of earning a degree, we must also provide mentorship on how to be courageous.

Here are 3 ways you can guide students into being more courageous:

  1. Reduce Fears and Anxieties

If you want your students to be more courageous, remember that as a professor, your role is to teach, guide, model and inspire, not to show students how tough "the real world is." Learning new content and balancing education with life is already hard enough, no need to instill fear on top of this. As an added bonus, as you minimize fears and anxieties, and students push through, they build confidence.

To minimize fears and anxieties in your students, there are several things you can do, here are some tips:

  • Set course expectations up front.
  • Link students to helpful resources.
  • Give them tips on what to do if they encounter technology problems.
  • Provide your contact information and answer emails / calls in less than 24 hours.
  • Give a little leeway in the event a student had a major life event occur during a specific week.
  • Humanize yourself. You can do this by sharing a little about who you are personally, doing videos in the courseroom, using humor, building rapport.
  • Don't give negative feedback in the open forum. Use personal email or gradebook feedback.
  • Give feedback on assignments and discussion questions. This helps the student to know what they have done well with and where they can improve. No feedback leaves students in the dark as to what they can improve on and how.
  1. Encourage Students to Focus on What They Can Control

In a classroom setting, you are the authority. Students may feel intimidated at times or feel that they have limited power. Perhaps they don't like the content, don't understand it, or are having personal troubles while also trying to manage their education. As a professor, if you want to increase your student's courage, help students to focus on what is in their control. This will help students persevere in the face of adversity or trials because they will realize they are not completely powerless.

Here are some tips you can share with students to help empower them to take control over their education:

  • Give students tips on avoiding procrastination
  • Share resources on balancing life and work
  • Give students tools on how to achieve better time management
  • Help students become intentional about their leaning. You can provide them with assessments that can help them better understand how they learn. (Check out the Learning Connections Inventory (LCI) through Let Me learn).
  • Share school / university resources.
  • Educate students on the importance of, and how to, build support systems and strong networks.
  • Teach students how to create SMART goals.
  • Encourage students to take an honest look at the people and activities in their lives. Then have them personally assess what / who might be best to cut versus keep in order to achieve those SMART goals.
  1. Teach Communication Skills

It takes courage to do something when you are scared or to press on in the event of pain and sadness. It is important to let students know that they are valuable and can use their voice to make a difference. By teaching students how to speak up, you empower them to make a difference in their lives and the lives of others- and that often takes a lot of courage. In today's society, the next generation in line must be heard. They are facing extreme levels of violence and rage, but the power of speech can change that and create a positive movement. As a professor, you can also educate your students on how to speak up on less socially involved issues, but still critical aspects of a student's life; for example, how to speak up for an advancement or say no to outside tasks that don't fit their goals.

Here are some ways you can help students improve their communication:

  • Educate students on the importance of various communication styles (formal, informal, verbal, non verbal).
  • Provide tips on how to use social media- alongside pros and cons.
  • Provide guidance on how to listen and the value of patience.
  • Educate students on how certain words can be perceived as having self-doubt. (For example, watching how often a student leads with "I think" or "I feel" in negotiating or business).
  • Model being respectful and discuss the importance of having an open mind.
  • Provide feedback on how to be clear and concise, yet substantially answer a question.
  • Share resources, such as books, articles and videos on how to communicate with confidence.

By boosting students' levels of courage, we are helping them to persevere through the trials and tribulations that life throw at them while they are taking a leap of faith into bettering their lives. As we boost courage, we also instill confidence. Courage and confidence are two key ingredients into helping our students reach their goals, obtain dreams and earn their degree. It is in these amazing students and their achievements that we are fortunate enough as professors to leave a bit of our legacy, behind.

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Top Ten Reasons For No-Start Vehicles

The top ten reasons that I see vehicles coming to Ace Automotive for no start problems

  1. Electric fuel pump failure / fuel filter restriction
  2. One of the most common no-start problems I have seen in recent times is the failure of in-tank electric fuel pumps, primarily due to lack of proper scheduled maintain on the vehicle owners part of not having the fuel filter changed at the proper intervals , sure some fuel filters can cost approx. $ 100.00 and up to replace several times a year but in some vehicles such as late 90s Jeep Gran Cherokees replacing the fuel pump costs nearly $ 800.00! How many times do you want to pay that? Also another cause for premature fuel pump failure is allowing the fuel level to get to below ΒΌ tank and below for extended periods or running completely out of fuel running out of fuel allows the electric fuel pump to run "dry" which nearly immediately ruins the pump . Vortec Design GM engines 4.3L, 5.7L with the CPI fuel injection system the CPI unit fails in many different ways; the plastic tubes leak, the "poppets get plugged, the fuel pressure regulator leaks.

  3. Timing Belt Failure / Timing belt tensioner failure
  4. Timing belts are designed to last approx. 40,000-60,000 miles under normal use not changing the timing belt before it "breaks" can result in expensive engine damage in some vehicles, such as Honda, Acura, Nissan, and Mitsubishi. Always have the timing belt changed a little before the recommended change interval and check the tensioner replace if questionable. Timing belt tensioner failure is common.

  5. Distributor Failure / Including Ignition control modules
  6. Mid 80s Gm 4 cyl. V-6s Most all GMs with Electronic distributor 4, cylinder, V-6, V-8 1988-1998) 80s / 90s Ford TFI ignition (gray module bolted to outside of distributor) Ford Pick-up assemblies inside the distributor I have seen many distributor failures on Hondas especially due to bearing failure.

  7. ECM / PCM Failure (computer)
  8. Primarily on mid 80s GM products with 2.8L engines and "W" in the 8th position of the VIN #
  9. Alternators
  10. Most problem alternator I have seen is the CS130 / CS130D on some mid 80s GMs for the CS130 and on later GMs the CS130D on like 92 and later makes like Gran Am, Gran Prix, etc.

  11. Crank / Cam Sensors
  12. Late model 92-93 Chrysler vehicles with 3.3L engine Caravan, Voyager, Mid 80s GMs 2.0L crank sensors 2.5 L crank sensors Mid 80s- early 90s GM V-6s crank sensors 90s Jeeps 4.0L engines cam / crank sensors Mitsubishi Galant 4 cyl engines crank sensors (failure due to balance belt failure and broken belt cuts sensor wires and damages sensor)

  13. Batteries / Cables / Clamps
  14. Many neglected corroded Batteries find their way to our facility; Batteries do not last forever! Poor Maintenance practices cause many many battery failures which often leads to other problems.

  15. Electrical Problems
  16. Ford ignition switches, in escorts in the early 90s the electrical portion of the ignition switch will separate inside, some ford ignition switches have been known to cause fires!

  17. Miscellaneous

Vehicles out of fuel due to inaccurate fuel gauges

Engines locked up due to lack of oil

Plugged Exhaust systems (catalytic converters

Teeth missing or worn off the flywheel cannot turn the engine over

Bad fuel injectors

But I have NEVER seen or heard of a car not starting or running bad due to the brand of gasoline being used!

Randy Harkins

Owner, Technician Ace Automotive

11924 Pacific Hwy Sw.

Lakewood Wa, 98499



[email protected]

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Disadvantages of Computers in the Classroom

To start the most significant fact that should be stated is that the computer is a tool, and as with any educational tool, from books to crayons, it can be used to enhance the curriculum and promote learning, but it can also be misused and abused . In this essay, I will discuss the disadvantages of having computers in the classrooms due to the misuse and the abuse of this tool.

I found it hard to find research that had been done on this topic because not only is the research on the effectiveness of computers in the classroom scarce but the research that is there is often done by software companies and therefore may be biased. (Emmans 2001). Even though there is no clear-cut answer to the question of a computer being a friend or foe in the classroom, having an unsolvable question of good or bad brings many issues to light.

For example, the fact that much of the software designed for children is appealing to them. If nothing else, it at least holds the children's attention. Though this may seem like a positive characteristic, consider this, just because a television show holds your attention, does it necessarily educate you? The answer to this is simple, maybe some do, but certainly not all do, mostly they are just simply entertaining. This causes me to raise an eyebrow at some, not all, software. As a teacher, one must not use time-fillers, cause a child can watch television or play on a computer at home, but as a teacher, we must educate, and if there is no educational value in the software, what good is it for a teacher?

On the defense for teachers, another reason for computers being a shortcoming is that sometimes the software is not clear that it is non-educational. This can be a common mistake of any educator, being fooled that a product could be educational when it is merely entertainment software dressed up in an educational costume aimed at these gullible teachers.

According to Cindy C. Emmans (2001), a professor of Educational Technology at Central Washington University, on software in the classroom …

"Often feedback is the key to learning, and computers are appealing because this feedback can be immediate, which is of course a very effective learning tool. Unfortunately, this feedback is not often as effective as it might be, perhaps because it is not easy to return to the original question to try again, or the student must begin at the beginning to review the original content rather then backing up a step or two. In some cases, the feedback for the wrong answers is more appealing than that for the right answer, causing students to try and get the wrong answer simply for the entertainment value. "

Gerald W. Bracey sums it up adequately in a journal article called Principal by basically saying that the bells and whistles are all there, but the education is not, because it was not produced by someone who understands how children learn. (1996, p. 6).

More arguments in the research area continued in September of 2000, the Alliance for Childhood published a statement against the use of computers in schools. More than 85 experts in various fields including psychiatry, education, and philosophy signed the statement in which calls for a suspension on the promoting introduction of computers into the nation's elementary schools until there is a more careful assessment of their effect (Hafner, 2000). Another influence in opposition to computers in classrooms is that of Jane Healy, an educational psychologist and the author of "Failure to Connect," a book criticizing educational applications of computers. Thomas Crampton interviewed Mrs. Healy and she declared that computers "can hurt children's personal skills, work habits concentration, motivation, (and) the development of social skills" (IHT, October 2000, p. 19).

Another reason that computers in the classroom would prove to be a disadvantage is the availability of computers in the classroom to each individual student. It is rare to find a school that, in each classroom, has a computer supplied for each student. This then brings up the problem of scheduling and rotating the students to the computers available. (Tiene 2001) This begins a whole new ball game in which you are now consuming a lot of time in which could be used for more productive measures rather then scheduling computer time for each student. If this is the case, and only a specific amount of students can be on the computer at one time, then you are dividing your classroom, and not integrating it, as it should be. This causes many difficulties in teaching a whole group instruction, which leads to problems in skill development, since the attention of some students is lacking. (Tiene 2001).

On the Colorado state education web site (2003), I was able to find questions that were asked to teachers regarding computers in their classrooms. The teachers were asked, "What do you find unattractive about teaching in a computer based classroom?" The one teacher commented that, "Students have a tendency to come in a print out their papers at the beginning of class instead of coming into class with a hard copy …" Another teacher said, "Technological difficulty, your whole lesson could be shot for the day if the computer would go down ". When the teachers were asked about the difficulties they faced themselves and with the students due to computers in the classroom, they answered, "It is hard to get the students attention when they are on the computers." Another teacher commented, "There are times that I send them to work and instead they are interacting with each other." Another teacher stated her fear of the computer classroom by saying that, "Students are at their own screens, they're in their own little world, and they are not talking to their classmates, sometimes I think that they don't even know half the names of all the people in their class. " (Barnes 2003)

I feel that these teachers comments are very important when looking at the issue of computers in the classrooms, because these are the people that actually interact with the children in the classroom, they are not just some random research study by a software company, these people are the real thing, and they see how computers are effecting their classrooms.

Another issue of computers in the classrooms regards the child's health. If a child were to be functioning on a computer for a long interlude of time or with incorrect positioning they will inadvertently obstruct their own health, some problems caused from this include muscular-skeletal injuries and vision problems. (MacArthur & Shneiderman, 1986).

Another issue concerning computer use in classrooms is that a lot of teachers have not been trained to use a computer, and many do not know how. An enormous amount of time would have to be consumed for the teachers to learn both the hardware and the software of the computer. They also would need time to collaborate with other teachers. Time is something that many teachers spend planning lessons and the weekly events of their classroom. The other problem that was just mentioned was the training of the teachers. Some educators do not have local training options available to them. Some do not have the time or money to spend on it. Another issue is that even if a teacher does go through training, there are always unsuspected things that can go wrong with a computer. If a teacher were to base their whole lesson on a computer, and it were to crash, and the teacher just being minimally skilled in using computers, would not be able to fix the system so that they could continue their lesson. (Tiene 2001) .Therefore an on-site technology expert would be needed on site at all times in case any of these incidences would happen, and quite frankly I do not think that there are too many school districts looking for another expense.

Another reason for computers being a disadvantage in the classroom is that if the computer is Internet accessible, if this is the case, then the children can be exposed to Internet content that is not appropriate for their age level. They can also be exposed to child predators, which is a huge concern in today's world.

Though this may seem far-fetched it truly is not in an article published on the gurdian angel websitein 2000 states,
"The facts are plain. Children are being targeted, solicited, and made victims by pedophiles. What do the ratios or statistics matter? Isn't even one too many? These predators range from the simple minded closet pedophile who has surfaced because they believe They are safely anonymous behind their account alias, to the highly organized and skilled child pornography rings that operate predominantly off of US soil, behind quick discard web sites, and anonymous re-mailers, pushing their hideous wares for big profits. of a child being molested or kidnapped in your hometown? Don't you teach your kids to watch for certain things and, not to talk to, or go anywhere with, strangers for just that reason? This is our point. real world lessons that you teach your children, there is a necessity to teach them cyber-world lessons. "(Hook, 2000).

To put this quite simply, are you sure that your child is being watched very closely when accessing the Internet at school? It sure would be hard for one teacher to keep a close eye on each individual student in the classroom when they are all accessing the Internet at the same time. Therefore are you, as a parent or a teacher, really quite sure that a computer is necessary to learn in school? I mean, did you, the parent or teacher, learn in school without the computer? I agree that learning the latest technology is a necessity, but I do not agree with using computers for classes like mathematics or reading.

To sum it all up, Computers in the classroom lacks research of it being an advantage in the classroom. Computers in the classroom may not provide the students with the proper education that they need if the software being used is not adequate. Computers may not be, depending on the school, made available to each student. The attention of the students is harder to get when they are on the computer. An inexperienced teacher in the technology area may cause many problems in the classroom, and consume valuable time that could be used to educate. Most schools do not provide an on site technician in case a difficulty may arise. The children's health may be affected by long-term use of the computers, and probably the most frightening one is that these children can be exposed to child predators and unfiltered inappropriate content through the web while they are in school and in their classrooms presumed to be receiving their education.

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